DEDICATED TO LOTUS FEET OF SRI SRI SRI BHAGAWAN SATYA SAI BABA
Life sketch of Dr . BURGULA RAMAKRISHNA RAO
The year of 1953 was coming to a close. The members of Congress party in the Hyderabad state legislative assembly were in a ferment. Group, communal and linguistic rivalries reached a high pitch and the leadership of the party was in question. The prime minister Shri Jawaharlal Nehru who was then also the Congress president , went to Hyderabad to settle the dispute. All the rival leaders and members of the party were summoned to Shah Manzil where the prime Minister was expected to address them.
Suddenly Mr.Nehru asked the doors of the packed hall to be closed and to the utter surprise of those fore-gathered called on them to write down the name of leader of their choice. Piecao Res of paper were distributed to the assembled members. The vanity bag of a lady member was converted into a ballot box. After voting, the papers were collected and counted. With the exception of one or two, every member assembled wrote down the name of B.Ramakrishna Rao. At that moment is was clear to Mr.Nehru and the world at large that highest common political factor in Hyderabad Deccan was Burgula Ramakrishna Rao. He was the first and last Chief Minister of composite Hyderabad state.
Born of a land owning family of late Mr. Narsinga Rao in the village of Padkal Mahboobnagar district on Match 13th 1899, he could not enjoy the economic benefits of a peer in the landowning class. Due to prolonged litigation involving claims to his lands,his father Narsing Rao was not in a position to give his eldest son the advantages of his peers. Dr rao along with his younger brother and cousins was educated in the Excelsior High School and Dharmavanth High School in Hyderabad city. He passed out first class in the middle school examination in 1914. Before one year he was called upon to appear for matriculation examination of Bombay university. For his intermediate , he joined the Nizam College then affiliated to the Madras University. He passed his examination in first class with distinction. As a student of Nizam College he was known for his extra curricular activities and was one of the founders and first Secretary of the Young Men’s Union to which distinguished leaders of the state were invited.
Later he found that the activities of the Union were retarding his academics and he entrusted his role and activities to late Shri M Narsinga Rao his soon to become brother-in-law , a well known journalist member of Hyderabad state legislature and united A.P state legislature and minister in late shri Sanjiva Reddy’s cabinet. Those were the days when the great Vaman Naik, Keshav Rao Koratkar, shri Madapati hanumantha Rao and others were working along with Burgula Ramakrishna Rao to sow the seeds of nationalism on a land of feudalism.
As was the custom among landed class in the state, Ramakrishna Rao was married in his thirteenth year and was father of two children before he passed his intermediate. His wife passed away in 1920 due to an ailment. By that time he joined Ferguson college in Pune and found himself imbibed in the cultural capital of Maharashtra. Those were the last days of Lokmanya Tilak . When Shri Tilak expired, Ramakrishna Rao was a leading student who agitated for the closure of the college in memory of the great patriot. He was already wearing Khaddar and writing in nationalistic press some thing pioneering for a hyderabadi. He took his B.A degree with English , Philosophy and political sciences and passed in first class. This enabled him to qualify for Ellis scholarship awarded by the Bombay university for further studies for one year. He was keen on perusing law degree which would help his family in land litigation. He had to maintain himself in Bombay before joining the law college.
ANDHRA JANA SANGHAM, ANDHRA MAHASABHA::
The circumstances which hastened the establishment of the Andhra Jana Sangham was
an incident that took place in the Nizam State Social Conference held at Hyderabad on12th November, 1921. A.Venkata Rama Rao, a leading lawyer of Hyderabad who got up to speak in Telugu on a resolution was shouted down by the audience. This opened the eyes of the Telugu audience to the true position of Telugu language. That very night, the Andhra Jana Sangham was started which later was renamed the Nizam Andhra Jana Sangham. The Andhra Jana Sangham aimed at the social, economic and cultural revival of the people of Telangana.
The Nizam's government had banned all political meetings and conferences in the state and the first Hyderabad PoliticalConference in 1923 had to be organised outside the state in Kakinada.Every effort was made to prevent any serious nationalist political activity in Hyderabad.
The programme of the Nizam's Jana Sangham included the opening of the Telugu books and promotion of historical research. Regular conferences were also held during the years 1923, 1924, 1925 and 1928 respectively. By 1930, it came to be known as Andhra Jana Sangham. In its conference in Devarkonda in 1931 under the presidentship of B.Ramakrishna Rao, most of the delegates spoke in Telugu showing thereby that the efforts of the Andhra Jana Sangham to foster Telugu language in Hyderabad state had not gone in vain.
In the 1930 conference, the Andhra Jana Sangham had converted its name to Andhra Maha Sabha and the use of the word 'Andhra' was quite objectionable to the Nizam's government but the Telangana leaders stuck to it and refused to substitute it by the word Telugu or Telangana. The Andhra Maha Sabha stuck to its goals to create
awareness for education and to propagate a proper understanding of the time, through the establishment of village libraries. In this direction, they conducted periodical conferences to bring under one roof the representatives of 60 lakh Andhras. In an atmosphere of illiteracy, ignorance and feudal rule, there were only a few enlightened
social workers in the city. Some of them were Unnava Venkataramiah, Madapati Hanumantha Rao, Suravaram Pratap Reddy, Ravi Narayan Reddy, T.Anantha Venkat Rao, Ramachandra Reddy Deshmukh, Alladurgam, Gopala Venkat Rao and Datta Narayana who constituted themselves into an organization called the Andhra Maha
The aim of the Maha Sabha during this period was also to eradicate the Purdah system that was prevailing in Hyderabad and other areas of the state which had no basis in the Dharmasastras. Emphasis on the need for female education and banning of child marriage were equally important. In all, 13 conferences were held in different parts of the state under the patronage of local landlords, merchants and other elite. In the initialstages, it faced great difficulties even to secure permission for conducting routine meetings.
It is also significant to note that along with the Andhra Maha Sabha conferences, Andhra Mahila conferences were also held in 1930. The first lady who presided over the Andhra Mahila conference at Jogipet was Nadimpalli Sundaramma. The second Andhra Mahila conference at Devarkonda was presided over by Smt.T.Varalakshmamma in 1901. She has the distinction of being the first remarried lady. She hailed from Karimnagar but studied medicine and set up practice in Hyderabad city. Other prominent women in the movement were Ellapragad Sita Kumari, Madapati Manikyamma, Burugula Anatha Lakshmi Devi including many others.
The women's wing functioned independently and concentrated on issues peculiar to them such as support to widow re-marriage, opposing men marrying a number of wives and purchase of young girls. Representation in legislature and other elective bodies was also made by the Andhra Mahila Sabha. In course of time, the
leading members joined the State Congress or the Communist Party of India as the case
may be. Though the Andhra Maha Sabha was not a militant organization, the Nizam's Government often refused to permit them to hold conferences or annual meetings.
By the year 1938, strong leanings towards Communism began to appear among some members of the group. The split in the group began to appear between nationalist persons like M. Ramachandra Rao and Ravi Narayan Reddy, the Communist leader.
In course of time the non-Communist group became anti-Communist. The anti-Communist group consisted of Congress minded youths, the bulk of whom were lawyers and middle class gentry naturally led by landlords and Jagidars. The 11th and 12th annual conferences of the Sabha were held at Bhuvanagiri and Khammam under
the Presidency of Narayana Reddy alone. The Andhra Communist leaders including Chandra Rajeshwara Rao participated in the conference which was attended by more than ten thousand people. K.V. Ranga Reddy, Dr. BRKR and M. Ramachandra Rao denounced the session as a Communist Party meeting and organized a rival Sabha called the Nationalist Andhra Maha Sabha. This Sabha held two sessions in 1945 and 1946 and then decided to merge itself with its counter parts - the Maharashtra Parishad and the Mysore Parishad in the Hyderabad State Congress. The Sabha under the Communists held its 12th session at Khammam 1945 and more than 40,000 attended the conference.On 3rd December 1946, the Communist Party was banned and naturally the activities of the Andhra Maha Sabha also came to a halt.
Under the Nizam, Telugus were discriminated and the official language in administration, courts, and medium of instruction in education was Urdu. Special permission was needed to even conduct meetings in Telugu. The Nizam Andhra Mahasabha after painstaking efforts managed to establish some Telugu libraries and schools. It gradually acquired strength in Telangana and emerged as the voice of the oppressed Telugu population under the Nizam and his feudatories, known as Doras, Deshmukhs, Patels and Jagirdars.
The Communist Party sensed an opportunity and took up the Visalandhra (united Andhra) cause and joined the Andhra Mahasabha. When Razakar army was perpetrating heinous crimes on the Telangana people, the Nizam Andhra Mahasabha led a guerrilla-style armed struggle against the Razakars, which turned into the Telangana sayudha poratam (armed struggle) against the Nizam, with the active co-operation of the Communist Party.
The Nizam Andhra Mahasabha received support from coastal Andhra districts which provided shelter to the leadership, logistics, monetary support to buy arms and volunteers to fight against the Nizam. The Communists were very active in these districts and their network was fully channelized on the Visalandhra plank to support the Telangana struggle. Sardar Patel sent the Indian Army (Operation Polo).
NIZAM RULE ENDS:
"Operation Polo", as the famous "Police Action" was codenamed to couch what was basically a military operation, brought down the curtains on a tyrannical era. And when the people of the erstwhile Hyderabad State encompassing Telangana and parts of Karnataka and Maharashtra, the largest Princely State, woke up on the dawn of September 17, 1948, they heard the big news of the Nizam's surrender, dubbed one of the meekest in history. It not only freed people from enslavement, but facilitated the integration of Hyderabad into the Indian Union, an event they had been long pining for. September 17 continues to be a momentous day for old Hyderabadis when they got the hard earned freedom after several flip flops, a full 13 months after Indian independence. In commemorating the event, they cannot forget but recall the chilling accounts of armed marauders of Razakars, a militia raised by Kasim Razvi with covert support from the Nizam's Government, raiding villages, maiming people, looting and raping women.
HYDERABAD STATE CONGRESS::
As a result of the efforts of the Andhra Maha Sabha political awareness was taught to the people and the idea of starting a "Hyderabad State Congress" on the lines of the State Congress Committee in the neighboring Andhra, Maharashtra and Karnataka states took shape.
When the AICC held its session at Kakinada in 1923 under Maulana Mohammed Ali a delegation under the leadership of Vaman Naik attended the session from Hyderabad State. Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao who was among the members of the delegation who was picked by late Smt Sarojini Naidu to translate the Hindi and Urdu speeches delivered by the leaders from North India into Telugu.
But it had taken another 13 years before efforts were made to form the State Congress. In 1936, a move was made by Siddanahalli Krishna Sharma, Burgula Ramakrishna Rao, Pandit Ramachari, Ramakrishna Dhoot, Swamy Ramanand Thirtha and Govindrai Nanal to give shape to the proposal to form the State Congress.
On September 9th, the Nizam issued an order banning the Congress in the state. This way even before the Congress took birth it was banned in the state.
As a result the Congress leaders had to go underground and carry on their activities subversively. Inspite of the objections, the leaders decided to formally inaugurate Hyderabad State Congress on 24th October 1938. Immediately Swamy Ramanand Tirtha was arrested because he offered satyagraha.The Provincial Committee of Congress laid great stress on responsible Government.They made their objectives very clear on the eve of the Satyagraha. They are as follows;
1. "Fundamental rights should be conferred upon the people immediately and all rules,regulations and circulars restricting freedom of speech, association and of the press and religious processions etc., should be immediately cancelled.
2. The Government should recognise Responsible Government as the object of
Constitutional Reforms in the State.
3.An immediate instalment of Responsible Government should be granted on the
lines of the proposals in the report of the Hyderabad People's Convention with
proper modifications to make Responsible Government more effective and real.
4. Although the Hyderabad State Congress considers the principles of reservation of
seats for any community as another form of communalism it will be prepared to
agree, as a purely temporary measure to ensure for not more than 10 years in all that a certain percentage shall be reserved to the minorities in the Legislature.
5. With regard to State Services the Congress will not, on principle, advocate any
reservation of percentage on communal lines and would suggest the immediate
appointment of a Public Service Commission consisting of officials and non-officials
with a view to remove nepotism and for establishing an equitable and just
selection for the services.
6. The Congress would guarantee the cultural religious and educational rights of any
minority in its scheme in any reasonable manner.
Thus the yeomen service rendered by the Andhra Maha Sabha and Hyderabad State Congress in bringing about the political awakening cannot be underestimated.
The Nizam's intentions for the future of the state became clear when he was not willing to work towards self government, any petitions or constitutional agitations were crushed in the state. The waves of nationalism spreading to the rest of India were bound to have an effect on Hyderabad. The constitutional reforms announced proved unsatisfactory to the congress as they seem reactionary , the congress had no option but to launch the civil disobedience movement. The government showed an uncompromising opposition towards them. There was a real struggle for a responsible government in Hyderabad. The congress created political and national consciousness in the people of Hyderabad, on the eve of the police action. Thus their efforts bore fruit when Hyderabad joined the Indian union in September 1948.
BURGULA as Linguist and literary expert:
He was multi lingual statesman a poet and writer in Sanskrit and Telugu. His interest in public life made him miss being a journalist when he had to reject an offer from the Indian Daily Mail. Burgula was an eloquent speaker of English, Farsi, Urdu, Sanskrit, Marathi, Kannada and Telugu. Despite being a lawyer by profession, his love for language and literature was ever lasting. He wrote poems, essays and translated books.
In 1942 he courted arrest and imprisonment in the Quit India movement and remained a strong fighting Congressman refusing to join the Nawab of Chattari ministry and by Sir Mirza Ismail serving the Nizam’s rule. The congress decided to join the civil government headed by Shri M.K. Vellodi between 1950-1952 after police action liberating Hyderabad state from Nizam’s autocratic rule.As Education and revenue minister he brought far reaching reforms in both the departments.
AS CHIEF MINISTER:
Under the new Constitution of India elections were held in February, 1952 in Hyderabad. The Congress secured over all majority in the legislature and was called to form the government. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao became the Chief Minister. He served as Chief Minister till the formation of Andhra Pradesh in November 1956.
MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
1. Shri B. Ramakrishna Rao, Chief Minister.
2. Digambar Rao Govind Rao Bindu, Home, Law and Rehabilitation Minister.
3. Shri K. V. Ranga Reddy, Revenue (Except Land Reforms and Tenancy), Excise,
Forests and Customs Minister.
4. Vinayak Rao Vidyalankar, Commerce, Industries and Labour Minister.
5. Dr. G. S. Melkote, Finance and Statistics Minister;
6. Shri Mehdi Nawaz Jung, Public Works, Medical and Public Health Minister.
7. Dr. M, Chenna Reddy, Agriculture, Supply, Planning Development and
8. Shri G, Anna Rao Ganamukhi, Local Self Government and Industrial Housing
9. Devi Singh Chauhan, Rural Reconstruction
and Education Minister.
10.Shanker Dev, Social Service Minister.
He held the position with dignity and distinction showing acumen of atmost order for survival against intra party and opposition groups.No leader in those times had so many adversaries and no leader perhaps had treated them with the same humanity and regard, still displaying firmness and strong hold. At the height of his power he had to bear the loss of his grown-up daughter and a young son. He had to face the shock of bereavement and the strain of the Chief Minstership which took a toll on his general health.
Other achievements as per State Assembly official records:
- Established facilities at all branches of the Hyderabad State Bank,District Treasuries and Sub-Treasuries.
·- All the armed forces on deputation from other States repatriated by 31st May 1952. Cutting down expenditure on
Police drastically with the return of conditions approximating to normalcy. Reorganization of the
City Police on the lines prevalent in the adjoining States had been taken up.
-· Reduction in crime rate:: A progressive decline in the number of detenus in jails.A Committee had been set up to
reorganise the jail industries. A juvenile Court presided over by a Lady Magistrate had been established
Reforms of Offenders Act aiming at converting jails into centers of reformation. Prisoners' Panchayat Boards
have been introduced to take care of amenities for the jail population.· Re-organization and strengthening of the anti- corruption branch of the Police Department.
Facilitated considerable expansion of the activities in the Medical and Public Health Department.
A T.B. Sanatorium and general hospital have been started at Mominabad, Bhir district, and a new ward of 45 bedshas been added to the T.B. Hospital at Hyderabad with the help of the Indian Conference of Social Workers.The Princess Niloufer Hospital commissioned and used as a first class maternity Hospital. The Osmania Medical
College has been taken over by the Medical Department in order to afford better facilities for medical education.
A fully equipped blood bank has also been attached to the Qsmailia Hospital· The establishment of a State Industrial Finance Corporation· A scheme for Labour-housing has been undertaken. Construction of 300 two-room tenements was completed
and work of constructing 1,720 one room tenements is in progress through Labour Co-operative Societies· Tribal Welfare Scheme. More than 2.30 lakhs of acres have been allotted to the Tribals for cultivation already.
15 Co-operative Multi-purpose Societies, 113 schools and 13 Rehabilitation Centershave been organized and are working satisfactorily· Under tbe Children's Protection Act, 23,500 children have beenregistered, 21 Samaj Seva Kendras comprising of over 64 villages havebeen opened in all the districts and trained village level workershave been posted to these places to inculcate the spirit of voluntary labor.· In short The period between 1952 to 1956 can be described as thehappiest period for the people of Telangana within the HyderabadState for a long time
After the Hyderabad State was liberated from the Nizam's rule, efforts for formation of the enlarged state of Andhra Pradesh, to bring all Telugu-speaking people into a unified state were launched. On November 26 1949, Visalandhra Maha Sabha was held at Warangal under the Chairmanship of Kaleswar Rao, and two General Secretaries, Pulla Reddy and S.R. Venkatesh representing Telangana. The conference attended by leaders like Prakasam Panthulu and others, resolved that an Andhra Pradesh State should be formed with Hyderabad as its capital. The demand for a united Telugu state with Telangana region peaked. Nehru was not in favour of it and termed it “expansionist imperialism”. He appointed the Fazal Ali Commission to look into the issue, but the Commission was ambiguous and recommended merging Telangana with Andhra after five years if approved by Telangana legislators with two-thirds majority.
UNITED A.P: (Telugu State)
Days Leading to formation of United A.P::Towering personalities from Coastal Andhra, Rayalaseema like Shri Tanguturi Prakasham Panthulu, DR. B. Pattabhi Sitha Ramayya, Shri Kala Venkata Rao, Shri Bezwada Gopala Reddy, Shri Neelam Sanjeea Reddy, Shri A. Satyanarayana Raju , Mutnuri Krishna Rao along side with Shri BRKR, Madapati Hanumantha Rao, Shri K.V.Ranga Reddy, Shri M Chenna Reddy, Shri VB Raju, Shri J.V.Narsing Rao, Shri P.V. Narasimha Rao formed a team laying way for formation of United A.P state in 1956
Despite many difficulties in Telangana eg, he
has steered the ship of the state of Hyderabad and whole-heartedly threw
himself in favour of the merger of Andhra and Telangana. In the mid-term elections in Andhra in 1955, he was sent as a star
performer and spoke in favour of a Greater Andhra. Had he not agreed to the
merger of Telangana and Andhra Regions, the present shape of Andhra Pradesh
would have become a dream even today', once said the former Editor of Andhra
Bhumi Telugu Daily, Sri Gora Sastry. Both as Administrator, Politician and
Language and Literature Personality, Mr.Rao had extended many services to the
Andhra Pradesh and its people.
ACCOMPLISHMENTS AS C.M::
He crafted the Hyderabad
Tenancy and Agricultural Act of 1950 and the Hyderabad Tenancy and Agricultural
lands (Amendment) Act of 1954. Each of these acts was a landmark in the history
of land reforms in the country. Dr. Rao’s astute administrative skills and his
holistic understanding of the entire scenario helped him craft the conceptual
framework for these acts. He did not leave it at that. It was Dr. Rao’s persistent
perseverance to see it go through the bureaucratic chambers of approval and
finally perceive its implantation that made it become a reality. This has
helped him earn the love and respect of thousands of landowners to whom the
gift of tenancy rights was a long awaited dream come true.
1950 Tenancy andAgricultural Lands Act
1952 Hyderabad Abolition of Cash Grants Act
1954 Inams Abolition Act (Absorbed) Enclaves
1955 (Hyderabad Jagirdars) Abolition Act
1956 Inam (Abolition andConversion into Ryotwari) Ac and Tenancy Act
(Inter alia) Tenants received protected tenancy status; tenants to have minimum term of lease;
right of purchase of non-resumable lands;transfer of ownership to protected tenants in respect of non-resumable lands; as a result 13611 protected tenants declared owners.Abolition of all the 975 jagirs in Talangena.
Abolition of inams (with few exceptions).Abolition of all the 975 jagirs in Talangena.Acquisition of 11137 estates.
Late P.V. Narasimha Rao was the legal junior to DR. BRKR and formed and invaluable albeit informal rapporteur with Communist insurgency to Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao, who was now Hyderabad’s Chief Minister and others in the government apparatus who took a hard line in dealing with it under guidance of Sardar Patel and Rajaji.
In the course of a packed 16 hour day he found time to dispose files, attend to official meetings, functions, write poetry in Telugu, study and write in Sanskrit , receive hundreds of visitors every one of them having some request or demand to make on him. Whether the request was granted or not no one went away being displeased with him.
He eradicated the system of jagirdar and mukthedar in Telangana and introduced the law of tenancy and became the first Indian land reformer. Until then education was in Urdu medium in Telangana and for the first time he gave importance for teaching in native language.
The United Andhra supporters on both sides insisted on a united Telugu state. More than two-third Telugu legislators of Hyderabad state voted for merger with coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema, and finally Andhra Pradesh emerged as the first linguistic state in the Indian Union on November 1, 1956.The above agreement was arrived at on February 20, 1956. It was signed by (1) B. Gopala Reddy, Chief Minister of Andhra; (2) N. Sanjiva Reddy, Deputy Chief Minister of Andhra; (3) G. Latchanna, Minister in the Andhra Cabinet & Leader of the Krishikar Lok Party – a constituent of the United Congress Front which contested the Andhra elections (1955) and formed the Ministry; (4) A. Satyanarayana Raju, President, Andhra Provincial Congress Committee; (5) B.Rama Krishna Rao, Chief Minister, Hyderabad; (6) K.V.Ranga Reddy, Minister, Hyderabad; (7) Dr. M. Chenna Reddy, Minister, Hyderabad; and (8) J.V. Narsinga Rao, President, Hyderabad Provincial Congress Committee.
As a result of all these efforts the Andhra Pradesh state took shape on November 1, 1956 and Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy was elected as the first Chief Minister of the State.
Page 8, column5 top
It provided reservation for Telangana locals in government services, a regional council for Telangana, and either the chief minister or deputy chief minister’s post for Telangana region.
Mr.Sanjeeva Reddy became the first chief minister of united Andhra Pradesh which lasted till 1st June 2014.
Stamp in memory of Dr BRKR
His eldest son late Shri Burgula Ranganatha Rao married to late Smt. Yashoda eldest daughter of late Mr. Narsing Rao. Shri Ranganatha Rao passed away in 2008 , earlier to that year Dr. Raos daughters Smt Syamala Devi and Smt Krishna Kumari also passed away.
Dr Rao is currently survived by his grandsons, Burgula LakshmiKanth (son of late Shri Ranganatha Rao), Burgula Sai Ramakrishna, and Burgula Pavan Kumar (sons of B. Lakshmi Narayana Rao). Shri late Ranganatha Rao has four surviving daughters Mrs Jayadevi, Mrs Vasumathi , Mrs Radha and Mrs Prabhavathi. Dr Illindala Prabhakara Rao, Padmaja , Sharada are his grand chidren born to his eldest daughter late Mrs Syamala Devi. He is survived by Mrs Aruna daughter of the eldest daughter of Mrs Anantha Lakshmi Devi. His second daughter Krishna Kumari was wedded into the family of late Shri M. Narasinga Rao former minister (she was married to his eldest son Shri Narasimha Rao). Dr.Rao has three grand daughters Deepika, Jyoyhika and Purnima born to Mrs Krishna Kumari.
అగనీయ మత్క్ర్వత దురాసద పాప జాలాన్
అవ్యాజమస్తి ఖలు దేవ దయా సముద్ర
ఈశథస్థస్రి సారాయ క్రుపామ్రుత వీక్షనార్థం